Free Access
Issue
Ann. Limnol. - Int. J. Lim.
Volume 47, Number 4, 2011
Page(s) 325 - 338
DOI https://doi.org/10.1051/limn/2011048
Published online 21 December 2011
  • Akaike H., 1973. Information theory and an extension of the maximum likelihood principle. In: Petrov B.N. and Csake F. (eds.), Second International Symposium on Information Theory, Akademiai Kiado, Budapest, 267–281.
  • Akaike H., 1974. A new look at the statistical model identification. IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, AC-19, 716–723. [NASA ADS] [CrossRef] [MathSciNet]
  • Allan J.D., 2004. Landscapes and riverscapes: The Influence of Land Use on Stream Ecosystems. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst., 35, 257–284. [CrossRef]
  • Allan J.D. and Flecker A.S., 1993. Biodiversity conservation in running waters. Identifying the major factors that threaten destruction of riverine species and ecosystems. BioScience, 43, 32–43. [CrossRef]
  • Anderson M.J., 2001. A new method for non-parametric multivariate analysis of variance. Austral Ecol., 35, 32–46.
  • Anderson M.J. and Braak C.J.F., 2003. Permutations test for multi-factorial analysis of variance. Journal of Statistical Computation and Simulation, 73, 85–113. [CrossRef]
  • Anderson M.J., Gorley R.N. and Clarke K.R., 2008. PERMANOVA+for PRIMER: Guide to Software and Statistical Methods, PRIMER-E, Plymouth, UK, 214.
  • Anderson M.J. and Robinson J., 2003. Generalized discriminant analysis based on distances. Aust. N. Z. J. Stat., 45, 301–318. [CrossRef] [MathSciNet] [PubMed]
  • Armitage P., Cranston P.S.V. and Pinder L.C.V., 1995a. The Chironomidae - The biology and ecology of non-biting midges, Chapman & Hall, London, xii+572.
  • Armitage P.D., Blackburn J.H., Malmqvist B. and Nilsson A.N., 1994. Chironomidae in freshwater habitats in Tenerife, Canary Islands. In: Cranston P.S. (ed.), Chiromonids from genes to ecosystems, CSIRO publications, Melbourne, 379–388.
  • Armitage P.D., Blackburn J.H., Nilsson A.N. and Malmqvist B., 1995b. Chironomidae in freshwater habitats in Tenerife, Canary Islands. In: Peter C. (ed.), Chironomids. From Genes to Ecosystems, CSIRO, Australia, 379–388.
  • Armitage P.D., Moss D., Wright J.F. and Furse M.T., 1983. The performance of a new biological water quality score system based on macroinvertebrates over a wide range of unpolluted running-water sites. Water Res., 17, 333–347. [CrossRef]
  • Ashe P., Murray D.A. and Reiss F., 1987. The zoogeographical distribution on Chironomidae. Ann. Limnol., 23, 27–60. [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences]
  • Bêche L.A., Macelravy E.P. and Resh V.H., 2006. Long-term seasonal variation in the biological traits of benthic-macroinvertebrates in two Mediterranean climate streams in California, U.S.A. Freshwat. Biol., 51, 56–75. [CrossRef]
  • Bettencourt M.L., 1979. O clima dos Açores como recurso natural na aplicação especialmente em agricultura e indústria do turismo, Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia e Geofísica, Lisboa, 63.
  • Bilton D.T., Freeland J.R. and Okamura B., 2001. Dispersal in freshwater invertebrates. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst., 32, 159–181. [CrossRef]
  • Borcard D., Legendre P. and Drapeau P., 1992. Partialling out the spatial component of ecological variation. Ecology, 73, 1043–1055. [CrossRef]
  • Borges P.a.V., 2005. Capitulo 2 Descrição da Biodiversidade Terrestre dos Açores. In: Borges P.a.V., Cunha R., Gabriel R., Martins A.F., Silva L., Vieira V., Dinis F., Lourenço P., Pinto N., Cunha R., Gabriel R., Martins A.F., Silva L. and Vieira V. (eds.), Listagem da Fauna e Flora (Mollusca e Arthropoda) (Bryophyta, Pteridophyta e Spermamatophyta) Terrestre dos Açores., Projecto Interreg III B (2000–2006) Atlântico, Direcção Regional do Ambiente, Governo Regional dos Açores, Rua Cônsul Dabney, Colónia Alemã, 9900-014, Horta, Faial, 23–68.
  • Borges P.a.V. and Brown V.K., 1999. Effect of island geological age on the arthropod species richness of Azorean pastures. Biol. J. Linn. Soc., 66, 373–410. [CrossRef]
  • Borges P.a.V., Costa A., Cunha R., Gabriel R., Gonçalves V., Frias Martins A.M., Melo I., Parente M., Raposeiro P., Rodrigues P., R. S.S., Silva L. and Vieira V., 2010. Description of the terrestrial and marine Azorean biodiversity. In: Borges P.a.V., Costa A., Cunha R., Gabriel R., Gonçalves V., Frias Martins A.M., Melo I., Parente M., Raposeiro P., Rodrigues P., R. S.S., Silva L. and Vieira V. (eds.), A list of the terrestrial and marine biota from the Azores, Principia, Cascais, 9–33.
  • Brasher A.M.D., 2003. Impacts of Human Disturbances on Biotic Communities in Hawaiian Streams. BioScience, 53, 1052–1060. [CrossRef]
  • Burnham K.P. and Anderson D.R., 2004. Multimodel inference: understanding AIC and BIC in model selection. Soc. Method. Res., 33, 261–304. [CrossRef]
  • Calle-Martínez D. and Casas J.J., 2006. Chironomid species, stream classification, and water-quality assessment: the case of 2 Iberian Mediterranean mountain regions. J. N. Am. Benthol. Soc., 25, 465–476. [CrossRef]
  • Clarke K.R. and Gorley R.N., 2001, PRIMER v5: User manual/tutorial. Plymouth, UKPRIMER-E, 91 pp.
  • Clarke K.R. and Gorley R.N., 2006, PRIMER v6: User manual/tutorial. PRIMER-E, Plymouth, UK, 115 pp.
  • Clarke K.R. and Green R.H., 1988. Statistical design and analysis for a ‘biological effects’ study. Mar Ecol Prog Ser, 46, 213–226. [CrossRef]
  • Coffman W.P., 1973. Energy flow in a woodland stream ecosystem. The taxonomic composition and phenology of the Chironomidae as determined by the collection of pupal exuviae. Archiv für Hydrobiolie, 71, 281–322.
  • Coffman W.P., 1989. Factors that determine the species richness of lotic communities of Chironomidae. Acta Biologica Debrecina, Suppl. Oecologica Hungarica, 3, 95–100.
  • Coffman W.P., 1995. 18 Conclusions. In: Armitage P.D., Cranston P.S. and Pinder L.C.V. (eds.), The Chironomidae: Biology and ecology of non-biting midges., Chapman & Hall, London, 436–572.
  • Connell J.H., 1978. Diversity in Tropical Rain Forests and Coral Reefs. Science, 199, 1302–1310. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Covich A.P., 2006. Dispersal-limited biodiversity of tropical insular streams. Polish J. Ecol., 54, 523–547.
  • Covich A.P., 2009. Freshwater ecology. In: Gillespie R.G. and Clague D.A. (eds.), Encyclopedia of islands, University of California Press, Berkeley, 343–347.
  • Cowie R.H. and Brenden S.H., 2006. Dispersal is fundamental to biogeography and the evolution of biodiversity on oceanic islands. J. Biogeogr., 33, 193–198. [CrossRef]
  • Cruz J.V., 2003. Groundwater and volcanoes: examples from the Azores archipelago. Environ. Geol., 44, 343–355. [CrossRef]
  • Davies L.J. and Hawkes H.A., 1981. Some effects of organic pollution on the distribution and seasonal incidence of Chironomidae in riffles in the River Cole. Freshwat. Biol., 11, 549–559. [CrossRef]
  • Delettre Y.R., 1995. Heathland fires temporarily increase species diversity: an example in terrestrial Chironomidae (Diptera). Landscape Urban Plann., 31, 259–268. [CrossRef]
  • Díaz A.M., Alonso M.L.S. and Gutiérrez M.R.V.-A., 2008. Biological traits of stream macroinvertebrates from a semi-arid catchment: patterns along complex environmental gradients. Freshwat. Biol., 53, 1–21.
  • Dimitriadis S. and Cranston P.S., 2007. From the mountains to the sea: assemblage structure and dynamics in Chironomidae (Insecta: Diptera) in the Clyde River estuarine gradient, New South Wales, south-eastern Australia. Aust. J. Entomol., 46, 188–197. [CrossRef]
  • DROTRH and INAG, 2001. Plano Regional da Água. Relatório Técnico. Versão para Consulta Pública, Direcção Regional do Ordenamento do Território e dos Recursos Hídricos e Instituto da Água, Ponta Delgada, 414.
  • European P. and The Council of the European U., 2000. Directive 2000/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council establishing a framework for the Community action in the field of water policy. OJEC, 327, 1–72.
  • Feld C.K. and Hering D., 2007. Community structure or function: effects of environmental stress on benthic macroinvertebrates at different spatial scales. Freshwat. Biol., 52, 1380–1399. [CrossRef]
  • Ferrington L.C., Blackwood M.A., Wright C.A., Crisp N.H., Kavanaugh J.L. and Schmidt F.J., 1991. A Protocol for Using Surface-Floating Pupal Exuviae of Chironomidae for Rapid Bioassessment of Changing Water Quality. In: Publication I. (ed.), Sediment and Stream Water Quality in a Changing Environment: Trends and Explanations, Vienna, 181–190.
  • Freeman P., 1959. Chironomidae (Diptera, Nematocera) from Azores and Madeira. Bol. Mus. Mun. Funchal, 12, 5–15.
  • Frey R., 1945. Tiergeographische Studieb uber die Dipteren-fauna der Azorean. I. Verzeichnis der bisher von den Azoren bekannten Dipteren. Societas Scientiarum Fennica. Commentationes Biologicae, VIII, 1–114.
  • Gendron J.M. and Laville H., 1995. Biodiversity and sampling frequency of the pupal exuviae of Chironomidae (Diptera) in a 4th order river. Archiv für Hydrobiologie, 135, 243–257.
  • Giller P.S. and Malmqvist B., 1998. The Biology of Streams and Rivers, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 296.
  • Gonçalves V., Raposeiro P. and Costa A.C., 2008. Benthic diatoms and macroinvertebrates in the assessment of the ecological status of Azorean streams. Limnetica, 27, 317–328.
  • Harding J.S., Benfield E.F., Bolstad P.V., Helfman G.S. and Jones E.B.D., 1998. Stream biodiversity: the ghost of land use past. Proceedings of the Natural Academy of Science U.S.A., 95.
  • Hardwick R.A., Cooper P.D., Cranston P.S., Humphrey C.L. and Dostine P.L., 1995. Spatial and temporal distribution patterns of drifting pupal exuviae of Chironomidae (Diptera) in streams of tropical northern Australia. Freshwat. Biol., 34, 569–578. [CrossRef]
  • Heino J., 2000. Lentic macroinvertebrate assemblage structure along gradients in spatial heterogeneity, habitat size and water chemistry. Hydrobiologia, 418, 229–242. [CrossRef]
  • Heino J., 2005. Functional biodiversity of macroinvertebrate assemblages along major ecological gradients of boreal headwater streams. Freshwat. Biol., 50, 1578–1587. [CrossRef]
  • Heino J. and Paasivirta L., 2008. Unravelling the determinants of stream midge biodiversity in a boreal drainage basin. Freshwat. Biol., 53, 884–896. [CrossRef]
  • Hering D., Johnson R.K., Kramm S., Schmutz S., Szoszkiewicz K. and Verdonschot P.F.M., 2006. Assessment of European streams with diatoms, macrophytes, macroinvertebrates and fish: a comparative metric-based analysis of organism response to stress. Freshwat. Biol., 51, 1757–1785. [CrossRef]
  • Hilsenhoff W.L., 1988. Rapid Field Assessment of Organic Pollution with a Family-Level Biotic Index. J. N. Am. Benthol. Soc., 7, 65–68. [CrossRef]
  • Hughes S.J., 2003. A study of the freshwater macroinvertebrate fauna of Madeira and their application in a regional ecological monitoring system. PhD thesis, University of London, UK, 328.
  • Hughes S.J., 2005. Application of the Water Framework Directive to Macaronesian freshwater systems. Biology and Environment: Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, 105B, 185–193. [CrossRef]
  • Hughes S.J., 2006. Temporal and spatial distribution patterns of larval trichoptera in Madeiran streams. Hydrobiologia, 553, 27–41. [CrossRef]
  • Hughes S.J., 2008. Chironomidae (Diptera). In: Borges P.a.V., Abreu C., Aguiar A.M.F., Carvalho P., Jardim R., Melo I., Oliveira P., Sérgio C., Serrano A.R.M. and Vieira P. (eds.), list of the terrestrial fungi, flora and fauna of Madeira and Selvagens archipelagos, Direcção Regional do Ambiente da Madeira and Universidade dos Açores, Funchal and Angra do Heroísmo, 330–331.
  • Hughes S.J. and Malmqvist B., 2005. Atlantic Island freshwater ecosystems: challenges and considerations following the EU Water Framework Directive. Hydrobiologia, 544, 289–297. [CrossRef]
  • Hughes S.J., Santos J.M., Ferreira M.T., Caraça R. and Mendes A.M., 2009. Ecological assessment of an intermittent Mediterranean river using community structure and function: evaluating the role of different organism groups. Freshwat. Biol., 54, 2383–2400. [CrossRef]
  • Inoue E., Kawai K. and Imabayashi H., 2005. Species composition and assemblage structure of chironomid larvae (Diptera: Chironomidae) attaching to the artificial substrates in a Japanese temperate basin, in relation to the longitudinal gradient. Hydrobiologia, 543, 119–133. [CrossRef]
  • Kohler S.L., 1992. Competition and the structure of a benthic stream community. Ecol. Monogr., 62, 165–188. [CrossRef]
  • Langton P.G., 1991. A key to Pupal Exuviae of West Palaeartic Chironomidae, Privately published, Huntington, UK, 386.
  • Langton P.H. and Visser H., 2003. Chironomidae exuviae - A key to pupal exuviae of the West Palaearctic Region. Expert Center for Taxonomic Information, Amsterdam.
  • Legendre P. and Anderson M.J., 1999. Distance-based redundancy analysis: testing multispecies responses in multifactorial ecological experiments. Ecol. Monogr., 69, 1–24. [CrossRef]
  • Lindegaard C. and Brodersen K., 1995. Distribution of Chironomidae (Diptera) in the River continuum. In: Peter C. (ed.), Chironomids. From Genes to Ecosystems, CSIRO, Australia, 257–271.
  • Louvat P. and Allegre C.J., 1998. Riverine erosion rates on Sao Miguel volcanic island, Azores archipelago. Chem. Geol., 148, 177–200. [CrossRef]
  • Maasri A., Fayolle S., Gandouin E., Garnier R. and Franquet E., 2008. Epilithic chironomid larvae and water enrichment: is larval distribution explained by epilithon quantity or quality? J. N. Am. Benthol. Soc., 27, 38–51. [CrossRef]
  • Macneil C., Dick J.T.A. and Elwood R.W., 1999. The dynamics of predation on Gammarus spp. (Crustacea: Amphipoda). Biol. Rev. Cam. Philos. Soc., 74, 375–395. [CrossRef]
  • Magalhaes B., Batalha D.C. and Collares-Pereira M.J., 2002. Gradients in stream fish assemblages across a Mediterranean landscape: contributions of environmental factors and spatial structure. Freshwat. Biol., 46, 1015–1031. [CrossRef]
  • Magurran A.E., 2004. Measuring Biological Diversity, Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, UK, 256.
  • Malmqvist B., 2002. Aquatic invertebrates in riverine landscapes. Freshwat. Biol., 47, 679–694. [CrossRef]
  • Massaferro J. and Brooks S.J., 2002. Response of chironomids to Late Quaternary environmental change in the Taitao Peninsula, southern Chile. J. Quatern. Sci., 17, 101–111. [CrossRef]
  • Mcardle B.H. and Anderson M.J., 2001. Fitting multivariate models to community data: A comment on distance-based redundancy analysis. Ecology, 82, 290–297. [CrossRef]
  • Mellado A., 2005. The ecology of stream macroinvertebrate assemblages from the Segura River Basin (SE Spain). Environmental factors, spatio-temporal variability, indicator taxa, diversity trends, biological-ecological traits and applications for bioassessment. PhD Thesis, University of Murcia, Spain.
  • Milner A.M. and Petts G.E., 1994. Glacial rivers: physical habitat and ecology. Freshwat. Biol., 32, 295–307. [CrossRef]
  • Moore A.A. and Palmer M.A., 2005. Invertebrate biodiversity in agricultural and urban headwater streams: implications for conservation and management. Ecol. Appl., 15, 1169–1117. [CrossRef]
  • Munné A. and Prat N., 2009. Use of macroinvertebrate-based multimetric indices for water quality evaluation in Spanish Mediterranean rivers: an intercalibration approach with the IBMWP index. Hydrobiologia, 628, 203–225. [CrossRef]
  • Murray D.A., Hughes S.J., Furse M.T. and Murray W.A., 2004. New records of Chironomidae (Diptera: Insecta) from the Azores, Macaronesia. Ann. Limnol. - Int. J. Limnol., 40, 33–42. [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences]
  • Mykrä H., Heino J. and Muotka T., 2007. Scale-related patterns in the spatial and environmental components of stream macroinvertebrate assemblage variation. Global Ecol. Biogeogr., 16, 149–159. [CrossRef]
  • Oromí P. and Báez M., 2001. División Arthropoda. In: Izquierdo I., Martín J.L., Zurita N. and Arechavaleta M. (eds.), Lista de especies silvestres de Canaries (hongos, plantas y animales terrestres), Consejería de Política Territorial y Medio Ambiente Gobierno das Canarias, 149–284.
  • Osborne S., Hurrell S., Simkiss K. and Leidi A., 2000. Factors influencing the distribution and feeding of the larvae of Chironomus riparius. Entomol. Exp. Appl., 94, 67–73. [CrossRef]
  • Peeters E.T.H.M., Gylstra R. and Vos J.H., 2004. Benthic macroinvertebrate community structure in relation to food and environmental variables. Hydrobiologia, 519, 103–115. [CrossRef]
  • Pinder L.C.V., 1986. Biology of Freshwater Chironomidae. Annu. Rev. Entomol., 31, 1–23. [CrossRef]
  • Punti T., Rieradevall M. and Prat N., 2007. Chironomidae assemblages in reference condition Mediterranean streams: environmental factors, seasonal variability and ecotypes. Fundam. Appl. Limnol., 170, 149–165. [CrossRef]
  • Punti T., Rieradevall M. and Prat N., 2009. Environmental factors, spatial variation, and specific requirements of Chironomidae in Mediterranean reference streams. J. N. Am. Benthol. Soc., 28, 247–265. [CrossRef]
  • Quaternaire-Portugal, 2008. O Plano Regional de Ordenamento do Território dos Açores, Secretaria Regional do Ambiente e Mar, Ponta Delgada.
  • Raposeiro P., 2010. Chironomidae. In: Borges P.a.V., Costa A., Cunha R., Gabriel R., Gonçalves V., Frias Martins A.M., Melo I., Parente M., Raposeiro P., Rodrigues P., Santos R.S., Silva L. and Vieira V. (eds.), A list of the terrestrial and marine biota from the Azores, Princípia, Cascais, 234–235.
  • Raposeiro P.M. and Costa A.C., 2009. Benthic macroinvertebrate based indices for assessing the ecological status of freshwaters on oceanic islands. Arquipelago - Life Mar. Sci., 26, 15–24.
  • Raposeiro P.M., Cruz A.M. and Hughes S.J., in press. Azorean freshwater invertebrates: Status, threats and biogeographic notes. Limnetica.
  • Raposeiro P.M., Hughes S.J. and Costa A.C., 2009. Chironomidae (Diptera: Insecta) in oceanic islands: New records for the Azores and biogeographic notes. Ann. Limnol. - Int. J. Limnol., 45, 59–67.
  • Raunio J., Ihaksi T., Haapala A. and Muotka T., 2007a. Within- and among-lake variation in benthic macroinvertebrate communities: comparison of profundal grab sampling and the chironomid pupal exuvial technique. J. N. Am. Benthol. Soc., 26, 708–718. [CrossRef]
  • Raunio J., Paavola R. and Muotka T., 2007b. Effects of emergence phenology, taxa tolerances and taxonomic resolution on the use of the Chironomid Pupal Exuvial Technique in river biomonitoring. Freshwat. Biol., 52, 165–176. [CrossRef]
  • Rosenberg D.M. and Resh V.H., 1993. Introduction to freshwater biomonitoring and benthic macroinvertebrates. In: Rosenberg D.M. (ed.), Freshwater Biomonitoring and Benthic Macroinvertebrates., Kluwer, London, 1–9.
  • Ruse L. and Davison M., 2000. Long-term data assessment of chironomid taxa structure and function in the river Thames. Regul. Rivers: Res. Manage., 16, 113–126. [CrossRef]
  • Ruse L.P., 1993. Chironomid distribution in the River Pang in relation to environmental variables, University of Bristol, PhD Thesis.
  • Ruse L.P., 2000. A simple key to water quality based on chironomid pupal exuviae. In: Hoffrichter O. (ed.), Late 20th Century Research on Chironomidae: an Anthology from the 13th Internacional Symposium on Chironomidae., Shaker Verlag, Germany, 405–413.
  • Ruse L.P. and Wilson R.S., 1995. Long-term assessment of water and sediment quality of the River Thames using Chironomid pupal skins. In: Peter C. (ed.), Chironomids. From Genes to Ecosystems, CSIRO, Australia, 113–124.
  • Saether O.A. and Spies M., 2009. Fauna Europaea: Chironomidae. In: De Jong H. (ed.), Fauna Europaea: Diptera: Nematocera, Fauna Europaea version 2.1, http://www.faunaeur.org.
  • Silva L. and Smith C.W., 2004. A Characterization of the Non-indigenous Flora of the Azores Archipelago. Biol. Invasions, 6, 193–204. [CrossRef]
  • Soininen J., Paavola R. and Muotka T., 2004. Benthic diatom communities in boreal streams: community structure in relation to environmental and spatial gradients. Ecography, 27. [CrossRef]
  • Stora R., 1945. Chironomidae. In: Frey R. (ed.), Tiergeographische Studien über die Dipterenfauna der Azoren. I Verzeichnes der bisher von der Azoren bekannten Dipteren, Societas Scientarum Fennica. Commentations Biologicae, 1–114.
  • Tokeshi M., Cranston P.S. and Pinder L.C.V., 1995. 10 Life cycles and population dynamics. In: Armitage P.D. (ed.), The Chironomidae: Biology and ecology of non-biting midges., Chapman & Hall, London, 225–268.
  • Tolonen K.T., Hamalaainen H., Holopainen I.J. and Karjalainen J., 2001. Influences of habitat type and environmental variables on littoral macroinvertebrate communities in a large lake system. Archiv fur Hydrobiologie, 152, 39–67.
  • Townsend C.R. and Hildrew A.G., 1994. Species traits in relation to a habitat templet for rivers systems. Freshwat. Biol., 31, 265–275. [CrossRef]
  • Townsend C.R., Hildrew A.G. and Schofield K., 1987. Persistence of stream invertebrate communities in relation to environmental variability. J. Anim. Ecol., 56, 597–613. [CrossRef]
  • Vallenduuk H.J. and Moller Pillot H.K.M., 2007. Chironomidae Larvae: General ecology and Tanypodinae, KNNV, Budel, 144.
  • Vannote R.L., Minshall G.W., Cummins K.W., Sedell J.R. and Cushing C.E., 1980. The River Continuum Concept. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 37, 130–137. [CrossRef]
  • Walter H.S., 2004. The mismeasure of islands: implications for biogeographical theory and the conservation of nature. J. Biogeogr., 31, 177–197. [CrossRef]
  • Weijters M.J., Janse J.H., Alkemade R. and Verhoeven J.T.A., 2009. Quantifying the effect of catchment land use and water nutrient concentrations on freshwater river and stream biodiversity. Aquat. Conserv.: Mar. Freshwat. Ecosyst., 19, 104–112. [CrossRef]
  • White J. and Irvine K., 2003. The use of littoral mesohabitats and their macroinvertebrate assemblages in the ecological assessment of lakes. Aquat. Conserv.: Mar. Freshwat. Ecosyst., 13, 331–351. [CrossRef]
  • Whittaker R.J. and Fernandez-Palacios J.M., 2007. Island Biogeography. Ecology, Evolution, and Conservation, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 401.
  • Wilson R., 1992. Monitoring organic enrichment of rivers using chironomid pupal exuvial assemblages. Aquat. Ecol., 26, 521–525. [CrossRef]
  • Wilson R.S. and Bright P.L., 1973. The use of chironomid pupal exuviae for characterizing streams. Freshwat. Biol., 3, 283–302. [CrossRef]
  • Wilson R.S. and Ruse L.P., 2005. A guide to the identification of genera of chironomid pupal exuviae occurring in Britain and Ireland (including common genera from northern Europe) and their use in monitoring lotic and lentic freshwaters, Freshwater Biological Association, Cumbria, UK, 176.
  • Winterbourn M.J., 1997. New Zealand mountain stream communities: Stable yet disturbed? In: Streit B., Stadler T. and Lively C.M. (eds.), Evolutionary Ecology of Freshwater Animals, Birkhauser Verlag, Basel, Switzerland, 31–54.
  • Wrubleski D.A. and Rosenberg D.M., 1990. The Chironomidae (Diptera) of Bone Pile Pond, Delta Marsh, Manitoba, Canada. Wetlands, 10, 243–275. [CrossRef]

Current usage metrics show cumulative count of Article Views (full-text article views including HTML views, PDF and ePub downloads, according to the available data) and Abstracts Views on Vision4Press platform.

Data correspond to usage on the plateform after 2015. The current usage metrics is available 48-96 hours after online publication and is updated daily on week days.

Initial download of the metrics may take a while.