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Life-history parameters (mean + 1 SE) of two cladocerans (Moina macrocopa and Daphnia similis) in the absence of predators (white bars), in the presence of fish-mediated water (gray bars) and in the presence of Chaoborus-mediated water (black bars). (a) Age at primipara, (b) size at primipara, (c) clutch-specific size, and (d) net reproductive rate. Different letters above bars denote significant differences within each prey type and reproductive event after an analysis of contrast.
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