In this manuscript we show the importance of the environmental integrity in tropical streams in mayflies (Leptophlebiidae), will lead to a loss of species and a decline in the abundance, in addition to a change in species composition, and the dynamics of populations. On average, a reduction of 0.1 in the value of the HII led to the loss of five specimens and one species. The composition of the communities varied systematically along the environmental gradient, with more sensitive species being found only when the index was above a threshold of 0.6. The importance of the riparian vegetation for the aquatic biota, especially its role in the mitigation of impacts from the surrounding matrix, supports the universal conservation of this type of habitat.
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